Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for their actions — justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? Under deontology, an act may be considered right even if the act produces a bad consequence,  if it follows the rule or moral law.
Crime and drugs are, of course, significant, but so are less obvious dangers: The key element of justice, according to Aristotle, is treating like cases alike—an idea that set for later thinkers the task of working out which kinds of similarities e.
A wealthy child may not get the necessary attention of its parents, someone beautiful may be the target of envy, you need to be in the dark in order to sleep, excessive freedom can sometimes be harmful, sadness and pain may be necessary to appreciate happiness, and so on.
The Stoics thus strengthened the tradition that regarded the universality of reason as the basis on which to reject ethical relativism. In the conservative mind, the metaphor of moral strength has the highest priority.
What is it about human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? This is a fine illustration of the Stoic message that what is important is the pursuit of wisdom and virtue, a quest that is open to all human beings because of their common capacity for reason, no matter what the external circumstances of their lives.
The collapse of public reasoning is so severe in the U. Indeed it is exactly its counterpart. As the article on collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for individuals.
You have to give priority to one of the principles. The resemblance requirement identifies a necessary condition for being good, but it does not yet give us a sufficient condition. Winning was more important than the intelligent discussion of issues. Though it clusters with other metaphors that we consider shortly, it is the one that matters most.
Moreover, as noted above, virtue ethics does not have to be neo-Aristotelian. If we are not careful, we can find that a lack of daily thoughtfulness about our small wrongdoing will, if life pushes us in a provocative manner, allow us to commit greater evils than we previously thought possible.
The word "character" often refers to Moral Strength seen as an essential moral property. University of Calgary Press, pp. And just as it is important that the financial books be balanced, so it is important that the moral books be balanced. My maxim, however, is to make a deceptive promise in order to get needed money.
And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of what she should do, and willing to act accordingly. Does a mere potential for virtue in itself guarantee that we will not succumb to ignorance and fear, with horrific results, at some point in our lives?
This meant that the Revolt would be a fight to the death, with no compromise sought from the Romans. But I consider our relations with others as constituting the boundaries of morality It is absolutely necessary. He did this by writing his works as dialogues in which Socrates is portrayed as engaging in argument with others, usually Sophists.
The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions.
Part of the morality of nurturance is self-nurturance: When the expected event did not occur and Christianity became the official religion of the vast and embattled Roman Empire, Christian leaders were faced with the awkward task of reinterpreting these injunctions in a manner more suited for a continuing society.
Any principle used to provide such categorizations appears to be a principle of metaphysics, in a sense, but Kant did not see them as external moral truths that exist independently of rational agents. By refined pleasures, Epicurus meant pleasures of the mind, as opposed to the coarse pleasures of the body.
These are among our basic experiential forms of well-being. Experiential Morality Before we proceed with our discussion of metaphors for morality, we should point out the obvious -- that morality is not all metaphorical and that nonmetaphorical aspects of morality are what the metaphorical system is based on.
A morally weak person is likely to fall, to give in to evil, to perform immoral acts, and thus to become part of the forces of evil.The history of ethics, moral and values in famous quotes.
Collection on Business Value, Values, Corporate Ethics, Moral and Virtue; Quotations from Socrates to Hsi-Tang, from Genesis to The Dalai Lama and from Warren Buffett to George W.
The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism is a collection of essays by Ayn Rand and Nathaniel agronumericus.com of the essays originally appeared in The Objectivist agronumericus.com book covers ethical issues from the perspective of Rand's Objectivist agronumericus.com of its themes include the identification and validation of egoism as a rational code of ethics, the destructiveness of.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. John Adams Signer of the Declaration of Independence and Second President of the United States [I]t is religion and morality alone which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand.
The only foundation of a free constitution is pure virtue. (Source: John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United [ ]. Essay Version Click-Tap "CONTENTS" at the top to see the table of contents for this essay.
A Socratic View of Wrongdoing. Morality is a term that refers to our adherence to rules that govern human behavior on the basis of some idea of right and wrong. Although the terms moral and ethical are often interchanged, in this essay I restrict my use of the terms ethics/ethical to refer to our.
Responsibility. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities.
Often we do this informally, via moral judgment.Download